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How Depression Affects the Workplace
As a supervisor, you may notice that some employees seem less productive and reliable than usual. They may call in sick or arrive late to work often, have more accidents or just seem less interested in work. These individuals may be suffering from a very real and common illness called clinical depression. While it is not your job as a supervisor to diagnose depression, it may help to understand more about it.
  • Each year, depression affects at least 10 million people, often during their most productive years―between the ages of 25 and 44.
  • Untreated clinical depression may become a chronic condition that disrupts work, family and personal life.
  • Depression results in more days in bed than many other ailments (such as ulcers, diabetes, high blood pressure and arthritis) according to a recent large-scale study published by the Rand Corporation.

In addition to personal suffering, depression takes its toll at the workplace:

  • At any one time, 1 employee in 20 is experiencing depression.
  • In 1989, depression cost the nation an estimated $27 billion, of which more than $17 billion was due to time lost from work. There is no way to estimate the total cost of lost productivity.

However, there is good news. More than 80 percent of depressed people can be treated quickly and effectively. The key is to recognize the symptoms of depression early and to receive appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, two out of three people with depression do not receive the treatment they need.

Many companies are helping employees with depression by providing training on depression and other mental disorders for supervisors, employee assistance professionals and occupational health personnel. Employers also are making appropriate treatment available through company-sponsored health benefits. Such efforts are helping reduce lost time and job-related accidents as well as improve productivity.

Depression is more than the blues
Everyone gets the blues or feels sad from time to time. However, if a person experiences these emotions intensely and for long periods of time, it may signal clinical depression, a condition that requires treatment.

Clinical depression affects the total person―body, feelings, thoughts and behaviors―and comes in various forms. Some people have a single bout of depression; others suffer recurrent episodes. Still others experience the severs mood swings of bipolar disorder―sometimes called manic-depressive illness―with moods alternating between depressive lows and manic highs.

Symptoms of depression include

  • Persistent sad or “empty” mood
  • Feelings of hopelessness, pessimism
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in ordinary activities, including sex
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness
  • Decreased energy, fatigue, being “slowed down”
  • Thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts
  • Sleep disturbances (insomnia, early-morning waking, or oversleeping)
  • Irritability
  • Eating disturbances (loss of appetite and weight, or weight gain)
  • Excessive crying
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions
  • Chronic aches and pains that don’t respond to treatment

Symptoms of mania include

  • Inappropriate elation
  • Irritability
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Increased talking, moving, and sexual activity
  • Racing thoughts
  • Disturbed ability to make decisions
  • Grandiose notions
  • Being easily distracted

In the workplace, symptoms of depression often may be recognized by

  • Decreased productivity
  • Morale problems
  • Lack of cooperation
  • Safety risks, accidents
  • Absenteeism
  • Frequent statements about being tired all the time
  • Complaints of unexplained aches and pains
  • Alcohol and/or drug abuse

If four or more of the symptoms of depression or mania persist for more than two weeks, or are interfering with work or family life, a thorough diagnosis is need. This should include a complete physical checkup and history of family health problems as well as an evaluation of possible symptoms of depression.

Depression affects your employees
Depression can affect your workers’ productivity, judgment, ability to work with others, and overall job performance. The inability to concentrate fully or make decisions may lead to costly mistakes or accidents. In addition, it has been shown that depressed individual s have high rates of absenteeism and are more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs, resulting in other problems on and off the job.

Unfortunately, many depressed people suffer needlessly because they feel embarrassed, fear being perceived as weak or do not recognize depression as a treatable illness.

Treatments are effective
More than 80 percent of people with depression can be treated effectively, generally without missing much time from work or needing costly hospitalization. There is a choice of treatments available, including medications psychological treatments or a combination of both. These treatments usually relieve the symptoms of depression in a matter of weeks.

What can a supervisor do?

  • Know what to say: “I’m concerned that you’ve been late to work recently and aren’t meeting your performance objectives. I’d like to see you get back on track. I don’t know whether this is the case for you, but if you have a personal problem you can speak confidentially to one of our employee assistance counselors. The service was set up to help employees who are experiencing personal problems. Our conversation today and your appointment with the counselor are confidential. Whether or not you contact this service, you still will be expected to meet your performance goals.”
  • Learn about depression and the sources of help. Reading this article is a good first step. Familiarize yourself with your company’s health benefits and resources, such as an employee assistance program (EAP.
  • Recognize when an employee shows signs of a problem affecting performance, which may be depression-related, and refer appropriately. As a supervisor, you cannot diagnose depression. You can, however, note changes in work performance and listen to employee concerns. If your company does have an EAP, ask a counselor for suggestions on how best to approach an employee who you suspect is experiencing work problems that may be related to depression. When a previously productive employee begins to be absent or tardy frequently, or usually is forgetful and error-prone, he may be experiencing a significant personal health problem
  • Discuss changes in work performance with the employee. You may suggest that the employee seek consultation if there is a personal problem. Confidentiality of any discussion with the employee is critical. If an employee voluntarily talks with your about health problems, including feeling depressed or down all the time, keep these points in mind:
  • Do not try to diagnose the problem yourself.
  • Recommend that any employee experiencing symptoms of depression seek professional consultation from an EAP counselor or other health or mental health professional.
  • Recognize that a depressed employee may need a flexible work schedule during treatment. Find out about your company’s approach by contacting your human resources specialist.
  • Remember that severe depression may be life-threatening to the employee, but rarely to others. If an employee makes comments like “life is not worth living” or “people would be better off without me,” take the threats seriously. Immediately call an EAP counselor or other specialist and seek advice on how to handle the situation.

Professional help is available from  

  • Physicians
  • Mental health specialists
  • Employee assistance programs
  • Health maintenance organizations
  • Community mental health centers
  • Hospital departments of psychiatry or outpatient psychiatric clinics
  • University or medical school affiliated programs
  • State hospital outpatient clinics
  • Family service/social agencies
  • Private clinics and facilities 

Source: “What To Do When An Employee Is Depressed: A Guide for Supervisors,” published by the National Worksite Program, which is organized by D/ART—DEPRESSION Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment, part of the National Institute of Mental Health.